top of page
Module 3

Dependent Sentences with Absolutive Pronouns as Subjects


In Module 3 will discuss the pattern of dependent sentences with absolutive pronouns as subjects, a subject referring to a non-specific individual. Independant sentences with absolutive pronouns will be discussed in Module 4. 

A pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun or noun phrase. They can be used for a noun that has already been mentioned or to a noun that does not need to be named specifically. In English some common subject pronouns are I, you, he, she, it, we, you and they. 

In the example below, the noun being replaces would be 'neexł (killer whale). Yagwa gyebnt (It is coming up for air). The -t suffix at the end of the verb indicates a non-specific individual or item, a 3rd person pronoun (he, she or it) which in this case is referring to the whale.


Yagwa gyebnt.

It is coming up for air.


time marker

absolutive pronoun


In Sm'algya̱x one way that pronouns are indicated is with an absolutive pronoun suffix wich is added on to the end of the verb. below is a chart showing the absolutive pronoun suffixes.

Screenshot 2021-11-27 183905.jpg

Intransitive Sentence with ABS Pronoun with Yagwa or Ła or Conjunctons

Recall the sentence structure described in Module 2:

Any Time Marker verb-a connective - common noun subject - end.

When the temporal is yagwa or ła, or when the sentence is introduced by a conjunction such as ada (and), awil (because) or ts’u (although) the plain absolutive pronoun suffixes are used and the suffix is tagged on to the verb. See the pattern below:

Yagwa / Ła / Conjunction)Verb-ABS Pronoun suffix –  End.

Yagwa gyebnt.

Yagwa 'yag̱ayaayu.

Ła ɬuuntin.


It is coming up for air.


I am walking down.

You are mad.

I know.

Note that the letter "y" is added  before the -u prefix after a vowel to aid in pronunciation. for mire information on end modifications when adding abs pronouns see the video below.


Ła dm baayu.  



More Examples:

Yagwa dm yaawxk-u


Yagwa dm yaawxgu.         I’m going to eat.

Ła dm baa-u


Ła dm baayu.                  I’m about to run.

Ła dm kołm.

Yagwa sisaaxst.

Yagwa 'yag̱ayeltgu.


Yagwa 'yag̱ayeltgu.


Ła batsgat.


Yagwa aadmhoonu.


Yagwa baxwaalxst.

KCLIFTON-logo-AbEd transparent backgrnd.
bottom of page